Academics cringe at the words truth and certainty. They believe that truth and certainty aren’t possible because philosophers have shown that neither empirical
nor deductive knowledge can be made error free.
But in the case of a finite number of discrete entities, such as the chemical elements or the human genes, certainty is an appropriate word.
And in any event, our knowledge of atoms and genes is as certain as our knowledge of tables and chairs, and a lot more certain than our knowledge of human behavior.
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